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w3m

W3M (Text Browser)

Introduction

w3m is a pager/text-based WWW browser. You can browse local documents and/or documents on the WWW using a terminal emulator. Options Command line usage is

    w3m [options] [file|URL]

If you specify filenames/URLs on command line, these documents are displayed. If you specify nothing, w3m reads a document from standard input and display it. If no filename and/or URLs are specified and standard input is tty, w3m terminates without displaying anything.

Options

Move to the specified line.

+<line number>

Specify tab width. Default is 8.

-t width

When displaying text/plain document, prohibit emphasis using backspace. If you don't specify this option, ``A^H_ is interpreted as underlined character and ``A^HA as a bold character.

-r

Specify line number preserved internally when reading text/plain document fron standard input. Default is 10000.

-l number

Display documents with Shift_JIS code.

-s

Display documents with EUC_JP code.

-e

Display documents with ISO-2022-JP code.

-j

Specify document type. Without this option, document type is determined from extension of a file.
If the determination fails, the document is regarded as text/plain.

-T type
 
    Example:
    Read HTML document from standard input and display it
 
       cat hoge.html | w3m -T text/html
 
    Display HTML source
 
       w3m -T text/plain hoge.html

Display document with Internet message mode. With this option,
w3m determines document type from header information. It is useful when reading E-mail or NetNews messages.

-m

visual startup mode.

-v

Show the bookmark.

-B

Specify bookmark file.

-bookmark file

Monochrome display mode.

-M

Automatically render frame.

-F

Squeeze blank lines.

-S

Upon exit, do not display preserved screen.

-X

Toggle wrap search mode.

-W

Specify option. The option names and values are same as that appears in ~/.w3m/config.

-o option=value

Process cookies.

-cookie

Don't process cookies.

-no-cookie

Set username and password for (basic) proxy authentication.

-pauth username:password

Show linenumber.

-num

Read document specified by URL and dump formatted text into standard output.
The width of the document become 80. This width can be overridden with -cols option.

-dump

Specify document width. Used with -dump option.

-cols width

Specify the number of pixels per character (default 8.0). Larger values will make tables narrower.

-ppc count

Read document specified by URL and dump the source.

-dump_source

Read document specified by URL and dump headers.

-dump_head

Read document specified by URL and dump headers and the source.

-dump_both

Read document specified by URL and dump extra informations, headers and the source.

-dump_extra

use POST method with file content.

-post file

insert string as a header.

-header string

Don't use proxy server.

-no-proxy

Don't use graphic character to draw frames.

-no-graph

Don't activate mouse.

-no-mouse

specify config file.

-config file

Document color

Links and images are displayed as follows.

 	Color mode	Monochrome mode
links	blue	underline
inline images	green	reverse
form input	red	reverse

These colors can be customized using option setting command “o”.

Key binding

After invocation, you can operate w3m by one-character commands from the keyboard.

Here's the original key-binding table. If you are using Lynx-like key bindings, see the Lynx-like key binding.

original key-binding table

| Page/Cursor motion
SPC,C-v	Forward page
b,ESC v	Backward page
l,C-f	Cursor right
h,C-b	Cursor left
j,C-n	Cursor down
k,C-p	Cursor up
J	Roll up one line
K	Roll down one line
^,C-a	Go to the beginning of line
$,C-e	Go to the end of line
w	Go to next word
W	Go to previous word
>	Shift screen right
<	Shift screen left
.	Shift screen one column right
,	Shift screen one column left
g,M-<	Go to the first line
G,M->	Go to the last line
ESC g	Go to specified line
Z	Move to the center line
z	Move to the center column
TAB	Move to next hyperlink
C-u,ESC TAB	Move to previous hyperlink
[	Move to the first hyperlink
]	Move to the last hyperlink
| Hyperlink operation
RET	Follow hyperlink
a, ESC RET	Save link to file
u	Peek link URL
i	Peek image URL
I	View inline image
ESC I	Save inline image to file
:	Mark URL-like strings as anchors
ESC :	Mark Message-ID-like strings as news anchors
c	Peek current URL
=	Display information about current document
C-g	Show current line number
C-h	View history of URL
F	Render frame
M	Browse current document using external browser (use 2M and 3M to invoke second and third browser)
ESC M	Browse link using external browser (use 2ESC M and 3ESC M to invoke second and third browser)
| File/Stream operation
U	Open URL
V	View new file
@	Execute shell command and load
#	Execute shell command and browse
| Buffer operation
B	Back to the previous buffer
v	View HTML source
s	Select buffer
E	Edit buffer source
C-l	Redraw screen
R	Reload buffer
S	Save buffer
ESC s	Save source
ESC e	Edit buffer image
| Buffer selection mode
k, C-p	Select previous buffer
j, C-n	Select next buffer
D	Delect current buffer
RET	Go to the selected buffer
| Bookmark operation
ESC b	Load bookmark
ESC a	Add current to bookmark
| Search
/,C-s	Search forward
?,C-r	Search backward
n	Search next
N	Search previous
C-w	Toggle wrap search mode
| Mark operation
C-SPC	Set/unset mark
ESC p	Go to previous mark
ESC n	Go to next mark
"	Mark by regular expression
| Miscellany
!	Execute shell command
H	Help (load this file)
o	Set option
C-k	Show cookie jar
C-c	Stop
C-z	Suspend
q	Quit (with confirmation, if you like)
Q	Quit without confirmation
| Line-edit mode
C-f	Move cursor forward
C-b	Move cursor backward
C-h	Delete previous character
C-d	Delete current character
C-k	Kill everything after cursor
C-u	Kill everything before cursor
C-a	Move to the top of line
C-e	Move to the bottom of line
C-p	Fetch the previous string from the history list
C-n	Fetch the next string from the history list
TAB,SPC	Complete filename
RETURN	Accept

Lynx-like key binding

| Page/Cursor motion
SPC,C-v,+	Forward page
b,ESC v,-	Previous page
l	Cursor right
h	Cursor left
j	Cursor down
k	Cursor up
J	Roll up one line
K	Roll down one line
^	Go to the beginning of line
$	Go to the end of line
>	Shift screen right
<	Shift screen left
C-a	Go to the first line
C-e	Go to the last line
G	Go to the specified line
Z	Move to the center line
z	Move to the center column
TAB,C-n,Down arrow	Move to next hyperlink
ESC TAB,C-p,Up arrow	Move to previous link
C-g	Show current page position
| Hyperlink operation
RET, C-f, Right arrow	Follow hyperlink
d, ESC RET	Save link to file
u	Peek link URL
i	Peek image URL
I	View inline image
ESC I	Save inline image to file
:	Mark URL-like strings as anchors
ESC :	Mark Message-ID-like strings as news anchors
c	Peek current URL
=	Display information about current document
C-h	View history of URL
F	Render frame
M	Browse current document using external browser (use 2M and 3M to invoke second and third browser)
ESC M	Browse link using external browser (use 2ESC M and 3ESC M to invoke second and third browser)
| File/Stream operation
g,U	Open URL
V	View new file
@	Execute shell command and load
#	Execute shell command and browse
| Buffer operation
B, C-b, Left arrow	Back to the previous buffer
\	View HTML source
s, C-h	Select buffer
E	Edit buffer source
C-l, C-w	Redraw screen
R, C-r	Reload buffer
S, p	Save buffer
ESC s	Save source
ESC e	Edit buffer image
| Buffer selection mode
k, C-p	Select previous buffer
j, C-n	Select next buffer
D	Delect current buffer
RET	Go to the selected buffer
| Bookmark operation
v, ESC b	Load bookmark
a, ESC a	Add current to bookmark
| Search
/, C-s	Search forward
n	Search next
w	Toggle wrap search mode
| Mark operation
C-SPC	Set/unset mark
P	Go to previous mark
N	Go to next mark
"	Mark by regular expression
| Miscellany
!	Execute shell command
H, ?	Help (load this file)
o	Set option
C-k	Show cookie jar
C-c	Stop
C-z	Suspend
q	Quit (with confirmation, if you like)
Q	Quit without confirmation
| Line-edit mode
C-f	Move cursor forward
C-b	Move cursor backward
C-h	Delete previous character
C-d	Delete current character
C-k	Kill everything after cursor
C-u	Kill everything before cursor
C-a	Move to the top of line
C-e	Move to the bottom of line
C-p	Fetch the previous string from the history list
C-n	Fetch the next string from the history list
TAB,SPC	Complete filename
RETURN	Accept

Mouse operation

If w3m is compiled with mouse option and you are using xterm/kterm/rxvt (in this case, you have to set the TERM environment variable to `xterm' or `kterm'.) or GPM environment, you can use mouse for the navigation.

left click 	Move the cursor to the place pointed by the mouse cursor. If you click the cursor and it is on an anchor, follow the anchor.
middle click 	Back to the previous buffer.
right click 	Open pop-up menu. You can choose an item by clicking it.
left drag 	Scroll document. The default behavior is to grab the document and drag it. You can reverse the behavior (grab the window and drag it) with the option setting panel.

Key customization

You can customize the key binding (except line-editing keymap) by describing ~/.w3m/keymap. For example,

keymap C-o NEXT_PAGE

binds `NEXT_PAGE' function (normally bound to SPC and C-v) to control-o.
See README.func for list of available functions. Original and Lynx-like keymap definitions are provided (keymap.default and keymap.lynx) as examples.

Local CGI

You can run CGI scripts using w3m, without any HTTP server.
It means that w3m behaves like an HTTP server and activates CGI script,
then w3m reads the output of the script and display it.
The bookmark registration and helper-app editor are realized as local CGI scripts.
Using local CGI, w3m can be used as a general purpose form interface.

For security reason, CGI scripts invoked by w3m must be in one of these directories.

  • The directory where w3m-related files are stored (typically /usr/local/lib/w3m). This directory can be referred as $LIB.
  • /cgi-bin/ directory. You can map /cgi-bin/ to any directory you like with option setting panel (``Directory corresponds to /cgi-bin'' field). You can specify multiple paths separated by `:', like /usr/local/cgi-bin:/home/aito/cgi-bin. It is not recommended to include current directory to this path.

The CGI script can use special header `w3m-control:' to control w3m. This field can take any function (see README.func), and the specified function is invoked after the document is displayed. For example, The CGI output

Content-Type: text/plain
W3m-control: BACK

will display blank page and delete that buffer immediately. This is useful when you don't want to display any page after the script is invoked. The next example

Content-Type: text/plain
W3m-control: DELETE_PREVBUF

contents…..

will override the current buffer.

One w3m-control: header have to contain only one function, but you can include more than one w3m-control: lines in the HTTP header. In addition, you can specify an argument to GOTO function:

Content-Type: text/plain
W3m-control: GOTO http://www.yahoo.com/

This example works exactly the same way to the Location header:

Content-Type: text/plain
Location: http://www.yahoo.com/

Note that this header has no effect when the CGI script is invoked through HTTP server.

w3m.txt · Last modified: 2009/04/10 03:19 by k2patel