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mod_evasive (module to prevent DDOS)

Short Brief Source mod_evasive is an evasive maneuvers module for Apache to provide evasive action in the event of an HTTP DoS or DDoS attack or brute force attack.
It is also designed to be a detection and network management tool, and can be easily configured to talk to ipchains, firewalls, routers, and etcetera.
mod_evasive presently reports abuses via email and syslog facilities.
Detection is performed by creating an internal dynamic hash table of IP Addresses and URIs, and denying any single IP address from any of the following:

  • Requesting the same page more than a few times per second
  • Making more than 50 concurrent requests on the same child per second
  • Making any requests while temporarily blacklisted (on a blocking list)

This method has worked well in both single-server script attacks as well as distributed attacks, but just like other evasive tools,
is only as useful to the point of bandwidth and processor consumption (e.g. the amount of bandwidth and processor required to
receive/process/respond to invalid requests), which is why it's a good idea to integrate this with your firewalls and routers for maximum protection.
This module instantiates for each listener individually, and therefore has a built-in cleanup mechanism and scaling capabilities.
Because of this per-child design, legitimate requests are never compromised (even from proxies and NAT addresses) but only scripted attacks.
Even a user repeatedly clicking on 'reload' should not be affected unless they do it maliciously.
mod_evasive is fully tweakable through the Apache configuration file, easy to incorporate into your web server, and easy to use.

cd /usr/local/src

Download Source from


Extract it

tar -zxvf mod_evasive_1.10.1.tar.gz
cd mod_evasive

Install it

Apache 2.0.x , execute the following command:

/usr/sbin/apxs -cia mod_evasive20.c
</code bash>
for Apache 1.3.x,
<code bash>
/usr/local/apache/bin/apxs -cia mod_evasive.c

Good Configuration (add it to the /www/apache/conf/httpd.conf)

IF Apache 2.x
<IfModule mod_evasive20.c>
IF Apache 1.3.x
 <IfModule mod_evasive.c>
   DOSHashTableSize    3097
   DOSPageCount        2
   DOSSiteCount        50
   DOSPageInterval     1
   DOSSiteInterval     1
   DOSBlockingPeriod   1600
   DOSSystemCommand "/sbin/ipfw add 1 deny all from %s to any" (works with Apache 2.x smoothly)
   DOSEmailNotify <email_address> (works with Apache 2.x smoothly)


The hash table size defines the number of top-level nodes for each child's hash table.
Increasing this number will provide faster performance by decreasing the number of iterations required to get to the record,
but consume more memory for table space. You should increase this if you have a busy web server.
The value you specify will automatically be tiered up to the next prime number in the primes list (see mod_evasive.c for a list of primes used).


This is the threshhold for the number of requests for the same page (or URI) per page interval.
Once the threshhold for that interval has been exceeded, the IP address of the client will be added to the blocking list.


This is the threshhold for the total number of requests for any object by the same client on the same listener per site interval.
Once the threshhold for that interval has been exceeded, the IP address of the client will be added to the blocking list.


The interval for the page count threshhold; defaults to 1 second intervals.


The interval for the site count threshhold; defaults to 1 second intervals.


The blocking period is the amount of time (in seconds) that a client will be blocked for if they are added to the blocking list.
During this time, all subsequent requests from the client will result in a 403 (Forbidden) and the timer being reset (e.g. another 10 seconds).
Since the timer is reset for every subsequent request, it is not necessary to have a long blocking period; in the event of a DoS attack,
this timer will keep getting reset.


If this value is set, an email will be sent to the address specified whenever an IP address becomes blacklisted.
A locking mechanism using /tmp prevents continuous emails from being sent.

NOTE: Be sure MAILER is set correctly in mod_evasive.c (or mod_evasive20.c).
The default is “/bin/mail -t %s” where %s is used to denote the destination email address set in the configuration.
If you are running on linux or some other operating system with a different type of mailer, you'll need to change this.


Choose an alternative temp directory, default is /tmp. File should look like dos-<IP address>


If this value is set, the system command specified will be executed whenever an IP address becomes blacklisted.
This is designed to enable system calls to ip filter or other tools.

mod_evasive.txt · Last modified: 2010/10/08 00:30 by k2patel